Random tutorial video (notice how the solver shows step-by-step work)

Available solvers:
Please register to access them

  • Mechanics: Solves kinematics, projectiles, force, gravity, friction, inclined slopes, work, energy and angular motion problems.
  • Collisions: Solves collision (both elastic and inelastic), collision on a plane (involving angles), ejection and explosion (2 body) problems. Your input as well as the final answer is diagrammed for clarity.
  • Pendulum: Solves pendulum problems (simple harmonic motion).
  • Springs: Solves spring problems (simple harmonic motion).
  • Gases: Solves ideal gas problems.
  • Buoyancy: Solves buoyancy problems.
  • Hydrostatic: Solves hydrostatic pressure problems.
  • Bernoulli: Solves fluid flow and Bernoulli equation problems.
  • Heat: Solves calorimetry and heat transfer problems.
  • Optics: Solves mirror and lens problems. Draws a ray diagram along with the worked-out solution.
  • Electromag: Solves electricity and magnetism problems including charges, magnetic fields, simple circuits, capacitors, resistors, I2R power loss and Railguns. Does not include compound circuits.
  • Quantum: Solves photons (energy, emission, absorption), de Broglie, work function, electron energy levels, Balmar, Lyman and Paschen Series.

Important tips on solving physics problems (please read):

Get your signs right

  • Should I input v = 7 m/s, or v = -7 m/s? Alpha Solver uses the following convention:
  • Up is positive.
  • Down is negative.
  • Right is positive.
  • Left is negative.
  • Up an incline is positive.
  • Down an incline is negative.
  • For ΔVariables, such as dv, dKE, an increase is positive, a decrease is negative.
  • It's very intuitive. But if you get it wrong, then the answer will be wrong. Eg: vi = 6, a = 2 is very different from vi = 6, a = -2.

Get your units right

  • If the unit is in SI, then no unit is required in the input. Eg: v=5m/s, t=3s, d=?m is the same as v=5, t=3, d=?
  • All non-SI units must be appended at the end of the value. Eg: v=5ft/min, t=1hr, d=?ft
  • For thetas (angles), the default unit is degrees. For everything else, we follow the SI convention.
  • When in doubt, include the units! Because there're some non-obvious ones: the SI for volume is m^3, not L. SI temperature is K, not C. SI molecular mass is kg/mol, not g/mol.

Use the hints provided for your input

  • If something is not in the hints/search assist, then it's not available as a variable/unit!
  • Input is case sensitive! eg: v is velocity, V is voltage or volume.
  • The hints/search assist will also provide common names for many variables. Eg, velocity is the same as v.

Scientific notation

  • Yes! Alpha Solver takes scientific notation for very large and very small values.
  • Sample input: v = 2.6e7, t = 1e-3, d=?

Official variable list for Alpha Solver Physics

First thing: Don't stress about memorizing all the variables in one go! Hint/search assist will help you out. Besides, your teacher will only teach you a few variables at a time.
Note: not all variables below are available in a particular app. Some variables can mean 2 or more things. Eg: c is either specific heat capacity or speed of light. Use the hint/search assist function of each app to see available variables.
Note on prefix: d = change in. Eg: dv = change in velocity. Note on suffix: i = initial. f = final. Eg: vi = initial velocity, vf = final velocity. 1,2 means objects 1,2. Eg: q1 = charge1, q2 = charge2.


  • a = acceleration
  • ax = acceleration in the x direction
  • ay = acceleration in the y direction
  • ac = centripetal acceleration
  • alpha = angular acceleration
  • A = area
  • A = amplitude
  • B = magnetic field
  • c = specific heat capacity
  • c = speed of light
  • d = distance/displacement
  • dx = distance/displacement in the x direction
  • dy = distance/displacement in the y direction
  • diameter
  • dt = time
  • e = coefficient of restitution
  • eff = efficiency
  • f = frequency
  • f = focal length
  • F = force
  • F_applied = applied force
  • F_net = net force (after taking into account of friction)
  • Fc = centripetal force
  • Ff = frictional force
  • Fg = gravitational force
  • Fn = normal force
  • Fw = weight
  • Fws = weight acting in the direction of the slope/incline
  • Fwn = weight acting in the direction normal to the slope/incline
  • g = 9.81 m/s^2
  • G = universal gravitational constant
  • GPE = gravitational potential energy
  • h = height
  • h = Planck's constant
  • i = image distance
  • I = current
  • I = moment of inertia
  • I2R_loss = I^2R power loss
  • J = volume flow rate
  • k = spring constant
  • k = Coulomb constant
  • K = dielectric constant
  • KE = kinetic energy
  • lambda = wavelength
  • L = length
  • m = mass
  • M = mass of planet (used in F = G*m*M/r^2)
  • M = molecular mass
  • n = energy level
  • n = number of mols
  • N = number of molecules
  • N = number of coils
  • o = object distance
  • p = momentum
  • phi = work function
  • P = power
  • P_in = power input/supplied (used to calculate efficiency)
  • P_out = power output/delivered (used to calculate efficiency)
  • P = pressure
  • Phi = magnetic flux
  • PI = 3.14
  • q = charge
  • q1 = charge 1
  • q2 = charge 2
  • r = radius
  • rho = density
  • rho = resistivity
  • R = resistance
  • R = Rydberg constant
  • t = time
  • T = period
  • tau = torque
  • dtheta = theta displaced
  • theta_slope = angle of the incline.
  • theta_var = theta/angle of var. Eg: theta_vi = 30 means the initial velocity is 30 degrees north of east.
  • theta_var1_var2 = theta/angle between var1 and var2. Eg: theta_F_applied_d = angle between applied force and displacement
  • u = velocity before collision (used in collisions app). Eg: u1,u1x,u1y, are the vi,vix,viy of object 1 before collision. For this app, diagram assist in
  • addition to the hint/search assist is available.
  • uk = coefficient of kinetic friction
  • us = coefficient of static friction
  • v = velocity
  • vmax = v0, speed at equilibrium position (for simple harmonic motion)
  • vx = x component of velocity
  • vy = y component of velocity
  • vi = initial velocity
  • vix = x component of initial velocity
  • viy = y component of initial velocity
  • vf = final velocity
  • vfx = x component of final velocity
  • vfy = y component of final velocity
  • dv = change in velocity
  • dV = voltage or potential
  • w = angular velocity
  • wi = initial angular velocity
  • wf = final angular velocity
  • W = work
  • Z = atomic number

Official units list for Alpha Solver Physics

Note: not all units are available on one particular app. Some apps may have more units available. Follow the hint/search assist to see available units.
Important: pound is a unit for mass NOT force, even though people say x weighs 150 pounds. You should input m = 150 pound, or m = 150 poundmass, or Fw = 150 poundforce.
All percentages are expressed as the decimal. eg, an efficiency of 96% should be input as eff = 0.96
Also, for compound non-SI units, make sure you input the complete unit. Eg: E = 2 kW*h (not kWh). Again, follow the hints/search assist.

  • A = Amp
  • Angstrom = Å
  • amu = atomic mass unit
  • atm = atmospheric pressure
  • btu = unit for energy
  • cal = small calorie
  • Cal = large Calorie
  • cm = centimeter
  • C = Coulomb
  • C = degrees Celcius
  • day
  • deg = degrees (angle)
  • dyne = unit for force
  • emass = electron mass
  • erg = unit for energy
  • eV = electron Volt
  • ft = feet
  • F = Farad
  • F = degrees Fahrenheit
  • G = Gauss
  • h = hour
  • hp = horsepower
  • Hz = Hertz
  • in = inches
  • J = Joule
  • kg = kilograms
  • km = kilometer
  • kPa = kilopascal
  • kV = kilovolts
  • kW = kilowatts
  • K = Kelvin
  • L = liter
  • m = meter
  • mi = mile
  • min = minute
  • mL = milliliter
  • mol = mole
  • month
  • mph = miles per hour
  • mm = millimeter
  • nm = nanometer
  • N = Newton
  • ohm = Ω
  • Pa = Pascal
  • planckmass
  • pmass = proton mass
  • psi = pound per square inch
  • rad = radians (angle)
  • rev = revolutions/vibrations
  • rpm = revolutions per minute
  • s = second
  • slug = unit for mass
  • tonne
  • T = Tesla
  • V = Volt
  • week
  • W = Watt
  • Wb = Weber
  • y = year
  • yard